EQUALITY
ORGANIZATION

Anxiety Marijuana Treatment References

Anxiety Medical Marijuana Treatment References 

 

REFERENCE LIST

1. Nutt D, Allgulander C, Lecrubier Y, Peters T, Wittchen U. Establishing non-inferiority in treatment trials in psychiatry: guidelines from an Expert Consensus Meeting. J Psychopharmacol. 2008;22(4):409–16.[PubMed]
2. Sugiura T, Waku K. 2-Arachidonoylglycerol and the cannabinoid receptors. Chem Phys Lipids. 2000;108(1-2):89–106. [PubMed]
3. Hillig KW, Mahlberg PG. A chemotaxonomic analysis of cannabinoid variation in Cannabis (Cannabaceae) Am J Bot. 2004;91(6):966–75. [PubMed]
4. ElSohly MA, Slade D. Chemical constituents of marijuana: the complex mixture of natural cannabinoids. Life sciences. 2005;78(5):539–48. [PubMed]
5. Brenneisen R. Chemistry and Analysis of Phytocannabinoids and Other Cannabis Constituents. In: ElSohly MA, editor. Marijuana and the Cannabinoids. Humana Press; 2007. pp. 17–49.
6. ElSohly MA, Stanford DF, Murphy TP. Chemical Fingerprinting of Cannabis as a Means of Source Identification. In: ElSohly MA, editor. Marijuana and the Cannabinoids. Humana Press; 2007. pp. 51–66.
7. Miller Coyle H, Palmbach T, Juliano N, Ladd C, Lee HC. An overview of DNA methods for the identification and individualization of marijuana. Croatian medical journal. 2003;44(3):315–21. [PubMed]
8. Brown H. Possible anticholinesterase-like effects of trans(−) 8 and – 9 tetrahydrocannabinol as observed in the general motor activity of mice. Psychopharmacologia. 1972;27(2):111–6. [PubMed]
9. Yoshimura H, Fujiwara M, Ueki S. Biochemical correlates in mouse-killing behavior of the rat: brain acetylcholine and acetylcholinesterase after administration of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol. Brain research. 1974;81(3):567–70. [PubMed]
10. Mishima K, Egashira N, Matsumoto Y, Iwasaki K, Fujiwara M. Involvement of reduced acetylcholine release in Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol-induced impairment of spatial memory in the 8-arm radial maze. Life sciences. 2002;72(4-5):397–407. [PubMed]
11. Zuardi AW. Cannabidiol: from an inactive cannabinoid to a drug with wide spectrum of action. Rev Bras Psiquiatr. 2008;30(3):271–80. [PubMed]
12. de Meijer EPM, Kamp HJ, Eeuwijk FA. Characterisation of Cannabis accessions with regard to cannabinoid content in relation to other plant characters. Euphytica. 1992;62(3):187–200.
13. Fadda P, Robinson L, Fratta W, Pertwee RG, Riedel G. Differential effects of THC- or CBD-rich cannabis extracts on working memory in rats. Neuropharmacology. 2004;47(8):1170–9. [PubMed]
14. Ryan D, Drysdale AJ, Pertwee RG, Platt B. Differential effects of cannabis extracts and pure plant cannabinoids on hippocampal neurones and glia. Neurosci Lett. 2006;408(3):236–41. [PubMed]
15. Starks M. Marijuana chemistry: genetics, processing & potency. Ronin Publishing, Inc.; Oakland, USA: 1990.
16. Showalter VM, Compton DR, Martin BR, Abood ME. Evaluation of binding in a transfected cell line expressing a peripheral cannabinoid receptor (CB2): identification of cannabinoid receptor subtype selective ligands. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1996;278(3):989–99. [PubMed]
17. Thomas BF, Gilliam AF, Burch DF, Roche MJ, Seltzman HH. Comparative receptor binding analyses of cannabinoid agonists and antagonists. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1998;285(1):285–92. [PubMed]
18. Pertwee RG. Pharmacology of cannabinoid receptor ligands. Curr Med Chem. 1999;6(8):635–64.[PubMed]
19. Bisogno T, Hanus L, De Petrocellis L, Tchilibon S, Ponde DE, Brandi I, et al. Molecular targets for cannabidiol and its synthetic analogues: effect on vanilloid VR1 receptors and on the cellular uptake and enzymatic hydrolysis of anandamide. Br J Pharmacol. 2001;134(4):845–52. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
20. Thomas A, Ross RA, Saha B, Mahadevan A, Razdan RK, Pertwee RG. 6″-Azidohex-2″-yne-cannabidiol: a potential neutral, competitive cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist. Eur J Pharmacol. 2004;487(1-3):213–21. [PubMed]
21. Thomas A, Baillie GL, Phillips AM, Razdan RK, Ross RA, Pertwee RG. Cannabidiol displays unexpectedly high potency as an antagonist of CB1 and CB2 receptor agonists in vitro. Br J Pharmacol. 2007;150(5):613–23. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
22. Pertwee RG. The diverse CB1 and CB2 receptor pharmacology of three plant cannabinoids: delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol and delta9-tetrahydrocannabivarin. Br J Pharmacol. 2008;153(2):199–215. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
23. Fisar Z. Phytocannabinoids and endocannabinoids. Curr Drug Abuse Rev. 2009;2(1):51–75. [PubMed]
24. Cascio MG, Gauson LA, Stevenson LA, Ross RA, Pertwee RG. Evidence that the plant cannabinoid cannabigerol is a highly potent alpha2-adrenoceptor agonist and moderately potent 5HT1A receptor antagonist. Br J Pharmacol. 2010;159(1):129–41. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
25. Davis MP. Oral nabilone capsules in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting and pain. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2008;17(1):85–95. [PubMed]
26. Atwood BK, Huffman J, Straiker A, Mackie K. JWH018, a common constituent of ‘Spice’ herbal blends, is a potent and efficacious cannabinoid CB receptor agonist. Br J Pharmacol. 2010;160(3):585–93.[PMC free article] [PubMed]
27. Atwood BK, Lee D, Straiker A, Widlanski TS, Mackie K. CP47,497-C8 and JWH073, commonly found in ‘Spice’ herbal blends, are potent and efficacious CB(1) cannabinoid receptor agonists. Eur J Pharmacol. 2011;659(2-3):139–45. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
28. Gaoni Y, Mecbonlam R. Isolation, Structure, and Partial Synthesis of an Active Constituent of Hashish. J Amer Chem Soc. 1964;86:1646–7.
29. Matsuda LA, Lolait SJ, Brownstein MJ, Young AC, Bonner TI. Structure of a cannabinoid receptor and functional expression of the cloned cDNA. Nature. 1990;346(6284):561–4. [PubMed]
30. Munro S, Thomas KL, Abu-Shaar M. Molecular characterization of a peripheral receptor for cannabinoids. Nature. 1993;365(6441):61–5. [PubMed]
31. Devane WA, Hanus L, Breuer A, Pertwee RG, Stevenson LA, Griffin G, et al. Isolation and structure of a brain constituent that binds to the cannabinoid receptor. Science. 1992;258(5090):1946–9. [PubMed]
32. Mechoulam R, Ben-Shabat S, Hanus L, Ligumsky M, Kaminski NE, Schatz AR, et al. Identification of an endogenous 2-monoglyceride, present in canine gut, that binds to cannabinoid receptors. Biochem Pharmacol. 1995;50(1):83–90. [PubMed]
33. Sugiura T, Kondo S, Sukagawa A, Nakane S, Shinoda A, Itoh K, et al. 2-Arachidonoylglycerol: a possible endogenous cannabinoid receptor ligand in brain. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1995;215(1):89–97. [PubMed]
34. Howlett AC, Qualy JM, Khachatrian LL. Involvement of Gi in the inhibition of adenylate cyclase by cannabimimetic drugs. Mol Pharmacol. 1986;29(3):307–13. [PubMed]
35. Adamec R. Transmitter systems involved in neural plasticity underlying increased anxiety and defense–implications for understanding anxiety following traumatic stress. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 1997;21(6):755–65. [PubMed]
36. Demuth DG, Molleman A. Cannabinoid signalling. Life sciences. 2006;78(6):549–63. [PubMed]
37. Herkenham M, Lynn AB, Little MD, Johnson MR, Melvin LS, de Costa BR, et al. Cannabinoid receptor localization in brain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990;87(5):1932–6. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
38. Herkenham M, Lynn AB, Johnson MR, Melvin LS, de Costa BR, Rice KC. Characterization and localization of cannabinoid receptors in rat brain: a quantitative in vitro autoradiographic study. J Neurosci. 1991;11(2):563–83. [PubMed]
39. Charney DS, Deutch A. A functional neuroanatomy of anxiety and fear: implications for the pathophysiology and treatment of anxiety disorders. Crit Rev Neurobiol. 1996;10(3-4):419–46. [PubMed]
40. Glass M, Dragunow M, Faull RL. Cannabinoid receptors in the human brain: a detailed anatomical and quantitative autoradiographic study in the fetal, neonatal and adult human brain. Neuroscience. 1997;77(2):299–318. [PubMed]
41. Katona I, Rancz EA, Acsady L, Ledent C, Mackie K, Hajos N, et al. Distribution of CB1 cannabinoid receptors in the amygdala and their role in the control of GABAergic transmission. The Journal of neuroscience: the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience. 2001;21(23):9506–18. [PubMed]
42. Freund TF, Katona I, Piomelli D. Role of endogenous cannabinoids in synaptic signaling. Physiol Rev. 2003;83(3):1017–66. [PubMed]
43. Mackie K. Distribution of cannabinoid receptors in the central and peripheral nervous system. Handb Exp Pharmacol. 2005;(168):299–325. [PubMed]
44. Tsou K, Brown S, Sanudo-Pena MC, Mackie K, Walker JM. Immunohistochemical distribution of cannabinoid CB1 receptors in the rat central nervous system. Neuroscience. 1998;83(2):393–411.[PubMed]
45. Salio C, Fischer J, Franzoni MF, Conrath M. Pre- and postsynaptic localizations of the CB1 cannabinoid receptor in the dorsal horn of the rat spinal cord. Neuroscience. 2002;110(4):755–64.[PubMed]
46. Morishita W, Alger BE. Evidence for endogenous excitatory amino acids as mediators in DSI of GABA(A)ergic transmission in hippocampal CA1. J Neurophysiol. 1999;82(5):2556–64. [PubMed]
47. Wilson RI, Nicoll RA. Endogenous cannabinoids mediate retrograde signalling at hippocampal synapses. Nature. 2001;410(6828):588–92. [PubMed]
48. Ohno-Shosaku T, Maejima T, Kano M. Endogenous cannabinoids mediate retrograde signals from depolarized postsynaptic neurons to presynaptic terminals. Neuron. 2001;29(3):729–38. [PubMed]
49. Varma N, Carlson GC, Ledent C, Alger BE. Metabotropic glutamate receptors drive the endocannabinoid system in hippocampus. J Neurosci. 2001;21(24):RC188. [PubMed]
50. Szabo B, Schlicker E. Effects of cannabinoids on neurotransmission. Handb Exp Pharmacol. 2005;(168):327–65. [PubMed]
51. Lovinger DM. Endocannabinoid Signaling in Neural Plasticity. Pharmacology of Neurotransmitter Release. 2008;184:435–77. [PubMed]
52. Pertwee RG, Howlett AC, Abood ME, Alexander SP, Di Marzo V, Elphick MR, et al. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology LXXIX. Cannabinoid receptors and their ligands: beyond CB and CB. Pharmacological reviews. 2010;62(4):588–631. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
53. Hudson S, Ramsey J, King L, Timbers S, Maynard S, Dargan PI, et al. Use of high-resolution accurate mass spectrometry to detect reported and previously unreported cannabinomimetics in “herbal high” products. J Anal Toxicol. 2010;34(5):252–60. [PubMed]
54. Hsieh C, Brown S, Derleth C, Mackie K. Internalization and Recycling of the CB1 Cannabinoid Receptor. Journal of Neurochemistry. 1999;73(2):493–501. [PubMed]
55. Walter L, Stella N. Cannabinoids and neuroinflammation. Br J Pharmacol. 2004;141(5):775–85.[PMC free article] [PubMed]
56. Van Sickle MD, Duncan M, Kingsley PJ, Mouihate A, Urbani P, Mackie K, et al. Identification and functional characterization of brainstem cannabinoid CB2 receptors. Science. 2005;310(5746):329–32.[PubMed]
57. Gong JP, Onaivi ES, Ishiguro H, Liu QR, Tagliaferro PA, Brusco A, et al. Cannabinoid CB2 receptors: immunohistochemical localization in rat brain. Brain research. 2006;1071(1):10–23. [PubMed]
58. Onaivi ES. Neuropsychobiological evidence for the functional presence and expression of cannabinoid CB2 receptors in the brain. Neuropsychobiology. 2006;54(4):231–46. [PubMed]
59. Brusco A, Tagliaferro P, Saez T, Onaivi ES. Postsynaptic localization of CB2 cannabinoid receptors in the rat hippocampus. Synapse. 2008;62(12):944–9. [PubMed]
60. Breivogel CS, Griffin G, Di Marzo V, Martin BR. Evidence for a new G protein-coupled cannabinoid receptor in mouse brain. Mol Pharmacol. 2001;60(1):155–63. [PubMed]
61. O’Sullivan SE, Kendall DA, Randall MD. Heterogeneity in the mechanisms of vasorelaxation to anandamide in resistance and conduit rat mesenteric arteries. Br J Pharmacol. 2004;142(3):435–42.[PMC free article] [PubMed]
62. Begg M, Pacher P, Batkai S, Osei-Hyiaman D, Offertaler L, Mo FM, et al. Evidence for novel cannabinoid receptors. Pharmacol Ther. 2005;106(2):133–45. [PubMed]
63. Sjögren S, Ryberg E, Lindblom A, Larsson N, Åstrand A, Hjorth S, et al. A new receptor for cannabinoid ligands; Symposium on the Cannabinoids; International Cannabinoid Research Society, Burlington, Vermont, USA. 2005.
64. Lauckner JE, Jensen JB, Chen HY, Lu HC, Hille B, Mackie K. GPR55 is a cannabinoid receptor that increases intracellular calcium and inhibits M current. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105(7):2699–704.[PMC free article] [PubMed]
65. Brown AJ, Robin Hiley C. Is GPR55 an anandamide receptor? Vitam Horm. 2009;81:111–37.[PubMed]
66. Okamoto Y, Morishita J, Tsuboi K, Tonai T, Ueda N. Molecular characterization of a phospholipase D generating anandamide and its congeners. J Biol Chem. 2004;279(7):5298–305. [PubMed]
67. Sun YX, Tsuboi K, Okamoto Y, Tonai T, Murakami M, Kudo I, et al. Biosynthesis of anandamide and N-palmitoylethanolamine by sequential actions of phospholipase A2 and lysophospholipase D. Biochem J. 2004;380(Pt 3):749–56. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
68. Liu C, Walker JM. Effects of a cannabinoid agonist on spinal nociceptive neurons in a rodent model of neuropathic pain. J Neurophysiol. 2006;96(6):2984–94. [PubMed]
69. Di Marzo V, Fontana A, Cadas H, Schinelli S, Cimino G, Schwartz JC, et al. Formation and inactivation of endogenous cannabinoid anandamide in central neurons. Nature. 1994;372(6507):686–91.[PubMed]
70. Beltramo M, Stella N, Calignano A, Lin SY, Makriyannis A, Piomelli D. Functional role of high-affinity anandamide transport, as revealed by selective inhibition. Science. 1997;277(5329):1094–7.[PubMed]
71. Hillard CJ, Campbell WB. Biochemistry and pharmacology of arachidonylethanolamide, a putative endogenous cannabinoid. J Lipid Res. 1997;38(12):2383–98. [PubMed]
72. Fegley D, Kathuria S, Mercier R, Li C, Goutopoulos A, Makriyannis A, et al. Anandamide transport is independent of fatty-acid amide hydrolase activity and is blocked by the hydrolysis-resistant inhibitor AM1172. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101(23):8756–61. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
73. Hillard CJ, Wilkison DM, Edgemond WS, Campbell WB. Characterization of the kinetics and distribution of N-arachidonylethanolamine (anandamide) hydrolysis by rat brain. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1995;1257(3):249–56. [PubMed]
74. Ueda N, Yamamoto K, Yamamoto S, Tokunaga T, Shirakawa E, Shinkai H, et al. Lipoxygenase-catalyzed oxygenation of arachidonylethanolamide, a cannabinoid receptor agonist. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1995;1254(2):127–34. [PubMed]
75. Cravatt BF, Giang DK, Mayfield SP, Boger DL, Lerner RA, Gilula NB. Molecular characterization of an enzyme that degrades neuromodulatory fatty-acid amides. Nature. 1996;384(6604):83–7. [PubMed]
76. LoVerme J, La Rana G, Russo R, Calignano A, Piomelli D. The search for the palmitoylethanolamide receptor. Life sciences. 2005;77(14):1685–98. [PubMed]
77. Bisogno T, Howell F, Williams G, Minassi A, Cascio MG, Ligresti A, et al. Cloning of the first sn1-DAG lipases points to the spatial and temporal regulation of endocannabinoid signaling in the brain. J Cell Biol. 2003;163(3):463–8. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
78. Dinh TP, Freund TF, Piomelli D. A role for monoglyceride lipase in 2-arachidonoylglycerol inactivation. Chem Phys Lipids. 2002;121(1-2):149–58. [PubMed]
79. Kozak KR, Prusakiewicz JJ, Marnett LJ. Oxidative metabolism of endocannabinoids by COX-2. Curr Pharm Des. 2004;10(6):659–67. [PubMed]
80. Piomelli D. The endocannabinoid system: a drug discovery perspective. Curr Opin Investig Drugs. 2005;6(7):672–9. [PubMed]
81. Hohmann AG. Inhibitors of monoacylglycerol lipase as novel analgesics. Br J Pharmacol. 2007;150(6):673–5. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
82. Kim J, Alger BE. Inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 potentiates retrograde endocannabinoid effects in hippocampus. Nat Neurosci. 2004;7(7):697–8. [PubMed]
83. Makara JK, Mor M, Fegley D, Szabo SI, Kathuria S, Astarita G, et al. Selective inhibition of 2-AG hydrolysis enhances endocannabinoid signaling in hippocampus. Nat Neurosci. 2005;8(9):1139–41.[PubMed]
84. Gerdeman GL, Ronesi J, Lovinger DM. Postsynaptic endocannabinoid release is critical to long-term depression in the striatum. Nat Neurosci. 2002;5(5):446–51. [PubMed]
85. Robbe D, Alonso G, Chaumont S, Bockaert J, Manzoni OJ. Role of p/q-Ca2+ channels in metabotropic glutamate receptor 2/3-dependent presynaptic long-term depression at nucleus accumbens synapses. J Neurosci. 2002;22(11):4346–56. [PubMed]
86. Sjostrom PJ, Turrigiano GG, Nelson SB. Neocortical LTD via coincident activation of presynaptic NMDA and cannabinoid receptors. Neuron. 2003;39(4):641–54. [PubMed]
87. Jung KM, Mangieri R, Stapleton C, Kim J, Fegley D, Wallace M, et al. Stimulation of endocannabinoid formation in brain slice cultures through activation of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors. Mol Pharmacol. 2005;68(5):1196–202. [PubMed]
88. Giuffrida A, Parsons LH, Kerr TM, Rodriguez de Fonseca F, Navarro M, Piomelli D. Dopamine activation of endogenous cannabinoid signaling in dorsal striatum. Nat Neurosci. 1999;2(4):358–63.[PubMed]
89. Gobbi G, Bambico FR, Mangieri R, Bortolato M, Campolongo P, Solinas M, et al. Antidepressant-like activity and modulation of brain monoaminergic transmission by blockade of anandamide hydrolysis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102(51):18620–5. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
90. Muntoni AL, Pillolla G, Melis M, Perra S, Gessa GL, Pistis M. Cannabinoids modulate spontaneous neuronal activity and evoked inhibition of locus coeruleus noradrenergic neurons. Eur J Neurosci. 2006;23(9):2385–94. [PubMed]
91. Di Marzo V, Cristino L. Why endocannabinoids are not all alike. Nat Neurosci. 2008;11(2):124–6.[PubMed]
92. Maccarrone M, Rossi S, Bari M, De Chiara V, Fezza F, Musella A, et al. Anandamide inhibits metabolism and physiological actions of 2-arachidonoylglycerol in the striatum. Nat Neurosci. 2008;11(2):152–9. [PubMed]
93. Busquets-Garcia A, Puighermanal E, Pastor A, de la Torre R, Maldonado R, Ozaita A. Differential Role of Anandamide and 2-Arachidonoylglycerol in Memory and Anxiety-like Responses. Biological psychiatry. 2011;70(5):479–86. [PubMed]
94. Long JZ, Li W, Booker L, Burston JJ, Kinsey SG, Schlosburg JE, et al. Selective blockade of 2-arachidonoylglycerol hydrolysis produces cannabinoid behavioral effects. Nat Chem Biol. 2009;5(1):37–44. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
95. Hanus L, Abu-Lafi S, Fride E, Breuer A, Vogel Z, Shalev DE, et al. 2-arachidonyl glyceryl ether, an endogenous agonist of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98(7):3662–5.[PMC free article] [PubMed]
96. Porter AC, Sauer JM, Knierman MD, Becker GW, Berna MJ, Bao J, et al. Characterization of a novel endocannabinoid, virodhamine, with antagonist activity at the CB1 receptor. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002;301(3):1020–4. [PubMed]
97. Heimann AS, Gomes I, Dale CS, Pagano RL, Gupta A, de Souza LL, et al. Hemopressin is an inverse agonist of CB1 cannabinoid receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104(51):20588–93.[PMC free article] [PubMed]
98. Gomes I, Grushko JS, Golebiewska U, Hoogendoorn S, Gupta A, Heimann AS, et al. Novel endogenous peptide agonists of cannabinoid receptors. FASEB J. 2009;23(9):3020–9. [PMC free article][PubMed]
99. Earlywine M. Understanding marijuana. A new look at the scientific evidence. Oxford University Press; New York: 2002.
100. Aggarwal SK, Carter GT, Sullivan MD, ZumBrunnen C, Morrill R, Mayer JD. Medicinal use of cannabis in the United States: historical perspectives, current trends, and future directions. Journal of opioid management. 2009;5(3):153–68. [PubMed]
101. Fankhauser M. History of cannabis in Western Medicine. Cannabis and Cannabinoids. The Haworth Integrative Healing Press; New York: 2002. pp. 37–51.
102. Hanus LO. Pharmacological and therapeutic secrets of plant and brain (endo)cannabinoids. Medicinal research reviews. 2009;29(2):213–71. [PubMed]
103. Escohotado A. Historia general de las drogas. Espasa Calpe; Madrid: 1998.
104. Reilly D, Didcott P, Swift W, Hall W. Long-term cannabis use: characteristics of users in an Australian rural area. Addiction. 1998;93(6):837–46. [PubMed]
105. Boys A, Marsden J, Griffiths P, Fountain J, Stillwell G, Strang J. Substance use among young people: the relationship between perceived functions and intentions. Addiction. 1999;94(7):1043–50. [PubMed]
106. Latimer W, Zur J. Epidemiologic trends of adolescent use of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs. Child and adolescent psychiatric clinics of North America. 2010;19(3):451–64. [PubMed]
107. Rinaldi-Carmona M, Barth F, Heaulme M, Shire D, Calandra B, Congy C, et al. SR141716A, a potent and selective antagonist of the brain cannabinoid receptor. FEBS Lett. 1994;350(2-3):240–4. [PubMed]
108. Kendler KS, Prescott CA. Cannabis use, abuse, and dependence in a population-based sample of female twins. The American journal of psychiatry. 1998;155(8):1016–22. [PubMed]
109. Swift W, Hall W, Teesson M. Cannabis use and dependence among Australian adults: results from the National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing. Addiction. 2001;96(5):737–48. [PubMed]
110. American Psychiatric Association . Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 4th ed. American Psychiatric Association Press; Washington: 2000.
111. Nutt DJ, Ballenger JC, Sheehan D, Wittchen HU. Generalized anxiety disorder: comorbidity, comparative biology and treatment. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2002;5(4):315–25. [PubMed]
112. Hollister LE. Health aspects of cannabis. Pharmacol Rev. 1986;38(1):1–20. [PubMed]
113. Hall W, Solowij N. Adverse effects of cannabis. Lancet. 1998;352(9140):1611–6. [PubMed]
114. Patton GC, Coffey C, Carlin JB, Degenhardt L, Lynskey M, Hall W. Cannabis use and mental health in young people: cohort study. BMJ. 2002;325(7374):1195–8. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
115. Green B, Kavanagh D, Young R. Being stoned: a review of self-reported cannabis effects. Drug Alcohol Rev. 2003;22(4):453–60. [PubMed]
116. Dannon PN, Lowengrub K, Amiaz R, Grunhaus L, Kotler M. Comorbid cannabis use and panic disorder: short term and long term follow-up study. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2004;19(2):97–101. [PubMed]
117. Gruber AJ, Pope HG, Jr, Brown ME. Do patients use marijuana as an antidepressant? Depression. 1996;4(2):77–80. [PubMed]
118. Stewart SH, Karp J, Pihl RO, Peterson RA. Anxiety sensitivity and self-reported reasons for drug use. J Subst Abuse. 1997;9:223–40. [PubMed]
119. Grinspoon L, Bakalar JB. The use of cannabis as a mood stabilizer in bipolar disorder: anecdotal evidence and the need for clinical research. J Psychoactive Drugs. 1998;30(2):171–7. [PubMed]
120. Ogborne AC, Smart RG, Adlaf EM. Self-reported medical use of marijuana: a survey of the general population. CMAJ. 2000;162(12):1685–6. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
121. Agosti V, Nunes E, Levin F. Rates of psychiatric comorbidity among U. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. 2002;28(4):643–52. [PubMed]
122. Ashton CH, Moore PB, Gallagher P, Young AH. Cannabinoids in bipolar affective disorder: a review and discussion of their therapeutic potential. J Psychopharmacol. 2005;19(3):293–300. [PubMed]
123. Arendt M, Rosenberg R, Fjordback L, Brandholdt J, Foldager L, Sher L, et al. Testing the self-medication hypothesis of depression and aggression in cannabis-dependent subjects. Psychol Med. 2007;37(7):935–45. [PubMed]
124. Tournier M, Sorbara F, Gindre C, Swendsen JD, Verdoux H. Cannabis use and anxiety in daily life: a naturalistic investigation in a non-clinical population. Psychiatry Res. 2003;118(1):1–8. [PubMed]
125. Wittchen HU, Frohlich C, Behrendt S, Gunther A, Rehm J, Zimmermann P, et al. Cannabis use and cannabis use disorders and their relationship to mental disorders: a 10-year prospective-longitudinal community study in adolescents. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2007;88(Suppl 1):S60–70. [PubMed]
126. Bonn-Miller MO, Vujanovic AA, Feldner MT, Bernstein A, Zvolensky MJ. Posttraumatic stress symptom severity predicts marijuana use coping motives among traumatic event-exposed marijuana users. J Trauma Stress. 2007;20(4):577–86. [PubMed]
127. Buckner JD, Schmidt NB, Lang AR, Small JW, Schlauch RC, Lewinsohn PM. Specificity of social anxiety disorder as a risk factor for alcohol and cannabis dependence. J Psychiatr Res. 2008;42(3):230–9.[PMC free article] [PubMed]
128. Bremner JD, Southwick SM, Darnell A, Charney DS. Chronic PTSD in Vietnam combat veterans: course of illness and substance abuse. Am J Psychiatry. 1996;153(3):369–75. [PubMed]
129. Jacobsen LK, Southwick SM, Kosten TR. Substance use disorders in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder: a review of the literature. Am J Psychiatry. 2001;158(8):1184–90. [PubMed]
130. Reynolds M, Mezey G, Chapman M, Wheeler M, Drummond C, Baldacchino A. Co-morbid post-traumatic stress disorder in a substance misusing clinical population. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2005;77(3):251–8. [PubMed]
131. Cougle JR, Bonn-Miller MO, Vujanovic AA, Zvolensky MJ, Hawkins KA. Posttraumatic stress disorder and Cannabis use in a nationally representative sample. Psychol Addict Behav. 2011 [PubMed]
132. Fontenelle LF, Hasler G. The analytical epidemiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder: risk factors and correlates. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2008;32(1):1–15. [PubMed]
133. Schindler F, Anghelescu I, Regen F, Jockers-Scherubl M. Improvement in refractory obsessive compulsive disorder with dronabinol. Am J Psychiatry. 2008;165(4):536–7. [PubMed]
134. Grant JE, Odlaug BL, Chamberlain SR, Kim SW. Dronabinol, a cannabinoid agonist, reduces hair pulling in trichotillomania: a pilot study. Psychopharmacology. 2011 [PubMed]
135. Zvolensky MJ, Lewinsohn P, Bernstein A, Schmidt NB, Buckner JD, Seeley J, et al. Prospective associations between cannabis use, abuse, and dependence and panic attacks and disorder. J Psychiatr Res. 2008;42(12):1017–23. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
136. Strakowski SM, DelBello MP, Fleck DE, Arndt S. The impact of substance abuse on the course of bipolar disorder. Biological psychiatry. 2000;48(6):477–85. [PubMed]
137. Baethge C, Baldessarini RJ, Khalsa HM, Hennen J, Salvatore P, Tohen M. Substance abuse in first-episode bipolar I disorder: indications for early intervention. Am J Psychiatry. 2005;162(5):1008–10.[PubMed]
138. Strakowski SM, DelBello MP, Fleck DE, Adler CM, Anthenelli RM, Keck PE, Jr., et al. Effects of co-occurring cannabis use disorders on the course of bipolar disorder after a first hospitalization for mania. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2007;64(1):57–64. [PubMed]
139. Bortolato M, Bini V, Tambaro S. Vulnerability Factors for the Psychiatric and Behavioral Effects of Cannabis. Pharmaceuticals. 2010;3(9):2799–820.
140. Thomas H. A community survey of adverse effects of cannabis use. Drug Alcohol Depend. 1996;42(3):201–7. [PubMed]
141. Atha MJ, Blanchard S. Regular Users – Self-reported drug consumption patterns and attitudes to drugs among 1333 regular cannabis users. Independent Drug Monitoring Unit; UK: 1997.
142. D’Souza DC, Perry E, MacDougall L, Ammerman Y, Cooper T, Wu YT, et al. The psychotomimetic effects of intravenous delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in healthy individuals: implications for psychosis. Neuropsychopharmacology: official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology. 2004;29(8):1558–72. [PubMed]
143. Favrat B, Menetrey A, Augsburger M, Rothuizen LE, Appenzeller M, Buclin T, et al. Two cases of “cannabis acute psychosis” following the administration of oral cannabis. BMC Psychiatry. 2005;5:17.[PMC free article] [PubMed]
144. Glass RM, Uhlenhuth EH, Hartel FW, Schuster CR, Fischman MW. A single dose study of nabilone, a synthetic cannabinoid. Psychopharmacology. 1980;71(2):137–42. [PubMed]
145. Fabre LF, McLendon D. The efficacy and safety of nabilone (a synthetic cannabinoid) in the treatment of anxiety. J Clin Pharmacol. 1981;21(8-9 Suppl):377S–82S. [PubMed]
146. Schifano F, Corozza O, Deluca P, Davey Z, Di Furia L, Farre M, et al. Psychoactive drug or mystical incense? Overview of the online available information on Spice products. International Journal of Culture and Mental Health. 2009;2(2):137–44.
147. Auwarter V, Dresen S, Weinmann W, Muller M, Putz M, Ferreiros N. ‘Spice’ and other herbal blends: harmless incense or cannabinoid designer drugs? J Mass Spectrom. 2009;44(5):832–7. [PubMed]
148. Bebarta SV, Varney S, Sessions D, Barry D, Borys D. Spice: A New “Legal” Herbal Mixture Abused by Young Active Duty Military Personnel. Clinical Toxicology. 2010;48(6):632–3. [PubMed]
149. Muller H, Sperling W, Kohrmann M, Huttner HB, Kornhuber J, Maler JM. The synthetic cannabinoid Spice as a trigger for an acute exacerbation of cannabis induced recurrent psychotic episodes. Schizophr Res. 2010;118(1-3):309–10. [PubMed]
150. Schneir AB, Cullen J, Ly BT. “Spice” girls: synthetic cannabinoid intoxication. J Emerg Med. 2011;40(3):296–9. [PubMed]
151. Benford DM, Caplan JP. Psychiatric sequelae of spice, K2, and synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists. Psychosomatics. 2011;52(3):295. [PubMed]
152. Braida D, Limonta V, Malabarba L, Zani A, Sala M. 5-HT1A receptors are involved in the anxiolytic effect of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and AM 404, the anandamide transport inhibitor, in Sprague-Dawley rats. Eur J Pharmacol. 2007;555(2-3):156–63. [PubMed]
153. Valjent E, Mitchell JM, Besson MJ, Caboche J, Maldonado R. Behavioural and biochemical evidence for interactions between Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol and nicotine. Br J Pharmacol. 2002;135(2):564–78.[PMC free article] [PubMed]
154. Berrendero F, Maldonado R. Involvement of the opioid system in the anxiolytic-like effects induced by Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol. Psychopharmacology. 2002;163(1):111–7. [PubMed]
155. Patel S, Hillard CJ. Pharmacological evaluation of cannabinoid receptor ligands in a mouse model of anxiety: further evidence for an anxiolytic role for endogenous cannabinoid signaling. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2006;318(1):304–11. [PubMed]
156. Haller J, Varga B, Ledent C, Freund TF. CB1 cannabinoid receptors mediate anxiolytic effects: convergent genetic and pharmacological evidence with CB1-specific agents. Behavioural pharmacology. 2004;15(4):299–304. [PubMed]
157. Onaivi ES, Green MR, Martin BR. Pharmacological characterization of cannabinoids in the elevated plus maze. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1990;253(3):1002–9. [PubMed]
158. McGregor IS, Issakidis CN, Prior G. Aversive effects of the synthetic cannabinoid CP 55,940 in rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1996;53(3):657–64. [PubMed]
159. Rodriguez de Fonseca F, Rubio P, Menzaghi F, Merlo-Pich E, Rivier J, Koob GF, et al. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) antagonist [D-Phe12,Nle21,38,C alpha MeLeu37]CRF attenuates the acute actions of the highly potent cannabinoid receptor agonist HU-210 on defensive-withdrawal behavior in rats. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1996;276(1):56–64. [PubMed]
160. Marco EM, Perez-Alvarez L, Borcel E, Rubio M, Guaza C, Ambrosio E, et al. Involvement of 5-HT1A receptors in behavioural effects of the cannabinoid receptor agonist CP 55,940 in male rats. Behavioural pharmacology. 2004;15(1):21–7. [PubMed]
161. Celerier E, Ahdepil T, Wikander H, Berrendero F, Nyberg F, Maldonado R. Influence of the anabolic-androgenic steroid nandrolone on cannabinoid dependence. Neuropharmacology. 2006;50(7):788–806.[PubMed]
162. Genn RF, Tucci S, Marco EM, Viveros MP, File SE. Unconditioned and conditioned anxiogenic effects of the cannabinoid receptor agonist CP 55,940 in the social interaction test. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2004;77(3):567–73. [PubMed]
163. Bortolato M, Piomelli D. Chapter 4. 5 The endocannabinoid system and anxiety responses. Handbook of Behavioral Neuroscience. Elsevier. 2008:303–324.
164. Crippa JA, Zuardi AW, Martin-Santos R, Bhattacharyya S, Atakan Z, McGuire P, et al. Cannabis and anxiety: a critical review of the evidence. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2009;24(7):515–23. [PubMed]
165. Katona I, Sperlagh B, Sik A, Kafalvi A, Vizi ES, Mackie K, et al. Presynaptically located CB1 cannabinoid receptors regulate GABA release from axon terminals of specific hippocampal interneurons. The Journal of neuroscience: the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience. 1999;19(11):4544–58.[PubMed]
166. Azad SC, Monory K, Marsicano G, Cravatt BF, Lutz B, Zieglgansberger W, et al. Circuitry for associative plasticity in the amygdala involves endocannabinoid signaling. The Journal of neuroscience: the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience. 2004;24(44):9953–61. [PubMed]
167. Moreira FA, Aguiar DC, Guimaraes FS. Anxiolytic-like effect of cannabinoids injected into the rat dorsolateral periaqueductal gray. Neuropharmacology. 2007;52(3):958–65. [PubMed]
168. Allen JRA, Amegadzie AK, Gardinier KM, Gregory GS, Hitchcock SA, Hoogestraat SA, et al. CB1 Modulator compounds. 2008. US7595339.
169. Josephus LHM, Henderik WC, Cornelis GK. Tetrasubstituted imidazole derivatives as cannabinoid CB1 receptor modulators with a high CB1/CB2 receptor subtype selectivity. 2009. US7524867.
170. Despres JP, Ross R, Boka G, Almeras N, Lemieux I, ADAGIO-Lipids Investigator Effect of Rimonabant on the High-Triglyceride/Low-HDL-Cholesterol Dyslipidemia, Intraabdominal Adiposity, and Liver Fat. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2009;29(3):416–23. [PubMed]
171. Cahill K, Ussher M. Cannabinoid type 1 receptor antagonists (rimonabant) for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007;3:CD005353. [PubMed]
172. Navarro M, Hernandez E, Munoz RM, del Arco I, Villanua MA, Carrera MR, et al. Acute administration of the CB1 cannabinoid receptor antagonist SR 141716A induces anxiety-like responses in the rat. Neuroreport. 1997;8(2):491–6. [PubMed]
173. Arevalo C, de Miguel R, Hernandez-Tristan R. Cannabinoid effects on anxiety-related behaviours and hypothalamic neurotransmitters. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2001;70(1):123–31. [PubMed]
174. Patel S, Cravatt BF, Hillard CJ. Synergistic interactions between cannabinoids and environmental stress in the activation of the central amygdala. Neuropsychopharmacology: official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology. 2005;30(3):497–507. [PubMed]
175. Bortolato M, Campolongo P, Mangieri RA, Scattoni ML, Frau R, Trezza V, et al. Anxiolytic-like properties of the anandamide transport inhibitor AM404. Neuropsychopharmacology: official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology. 2006;31(12):2652–9. [PubMed]
176. Van Gaal LF, Rissanen AM, Scheen AJ, Ziegler O, Rossner S. Effects of the cannabinoid-1 receptor blocker rimonabant on weight reduction and cardiovascular risk factors in overweight patients: 1-year experience from the RIO-Europe study. Lancet. 2005;365(9468):1389–97. [PubMed]
177. Christensen R, Kristensen PK, Bartels EM, Bliddal H, Astrup A. Efficacy and safety of the weight-loss drug rimonabant: a meta-analysis of randomised trials. Lancet. 2007;370(9600):1706–13. [PubMed]
178. Rucker D, Padwal R, Li SK, Curioni C, Lau DC. Long term pharmacotherapy for obesity and overweight: updated meta-analysis. BMJ. 2007;335(7631):1194–9. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
179. Van Gaal LF, Scheen AJ, Rissanen AM, Rossner S, Hanotin C, Ziegler O. Long-term effect of CB1 blockade with rimonabant on cardiometabolic risk factors: two year results from the RIO-Europe Study. Eur Heart J. 2008;29(14):1761–71. [PubMed]
180. Pertwee RG. Inverse agonism and neutral antagonism at cannabinoid CB1 receptors. Life sciences. 2005;76(12):1307–24. [PubMed]
181. Greig IR, Ross RA, Pertwee RG. 1,5-diaryl-pyrazoles as cannabinoid receptor neutral antagonists useful as therapeutic agents. 2010. US0022611.
182. Sink KS, Segovia KN, Collins LE, Markus EJ, Vemuri VK, Makriyannis A, et al. The CB1 inverse agonist AM251, but not the CB1 antagonist AM4113, enhances retention of contextual fear conditioning in rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2010;95(4):479–84. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
183. Benito C, Nunez E, Tolon RM, Carrier EJ, Rabano A, Hillard CJ, et al. Cannabinoid CB2 receptors and fatty acid amide hydrolase are selectively overexpressed in neuritic plaque-associated glia in Alzheimer’s disease brains. J Neurosci. 2003;23(35):11136–41. [PubMed]
184. Benito C, Romero JP, Tolon RM, Clemente D, Docagne F, Hillard CJ, et al. Cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors and fatty acid amide hydrolase are specific markers of plaque cell subtypes in human multiple sclerosis. J Neurosci. 2007;27(9):2396–402. [PubMed]
185. Yiangou Y, Facer P, Durrenberger P, Chessell IP, Naylor A, Bountra C, et al. COX-2, CB2 and P2X7-immunoreactivities are increased in activated microglial cells/macrophages of multiple sclerosis and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis spinal cord. BMC Neurol. 2006;6:12. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
186. Onaivi ES, Ishiguro H, Gong JP, Patel S, Meozzi PA, Myers L, et al. Brain neuronal CB2 cannabinoid receptors in drug abuse and depression: from mice to human subjects. PLoS One. 2008;3(2):e1640.[PMC free article] [PubMed]
187. Garcia-Gutierrez MS, Manzanares J. Overexpression of CB2 cannabinoid receptors decreased vulnerability to anxiety and impaired anxiolytic action of alprazolam in mice. J Psychopharmacol. 2011;25(1):111–20. [PubMed]
188. Bhattacharyya S, Morrison PD, Fusar-Poli P, Martin-Santos R, Borgwardt S, Winton-Brown T, et al. Opposite effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol on human brain function and psychopathology. Neuropsychopharmacology: official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology. 2010;35(3):764–74. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
189. Zuardi AW, Finkelfarb E, Bueno OF, Musty RE, Karniol IG. Characteristics of the stimulus produced by the mixture of cannabidiol with delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol. Archives internationales de pharmacodynamie et de therapie. 1981;249(1):137–46. [PubMed]
190. Vann RE, Gamage TF, Warner JA, Marshall EM, Taylor NL, Martin BR, et al. Divergent effects of cannabidiol on the discriminative stimulus and place conditioning effects of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol. Drug and alcohol dependence. 2008;94(1-3):191–8. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
191. Malone DT, Jongejan D, Taylor DA. Cannabidiol reverses the reduction in social interaction produced by low dose Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol in rats. Pharmacology, biochemistry, and behavior. 2009;93(2):91–6. [PubMed]
192. Zuardi AW, Shirakawa I, Finkelfarb E, Karniol IG. Action of cannabidiol on the anxiety and other effects produced by delta 9-THC in normal subjects. Psychopharmacology. 1982;76(3):245–50. [PubMed]
193. Reid MJ, Bornheim LM. Cannabinoid-induced alterations in brain disposition of drugs of abuse. Biochemical pharmacology. 2001;61(11):1357–67. [PubMed]
194. Hayakawa K, Mishima K, Hazekawa M, Sano K, Irie K, Orito K, et al. Cannabidiol potentiates pharmacological effects of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol via CB(1) receptor-dependent mechanism. Brain research. 2008;1188:157–64. [PubMed]
195. Klein C, Karanges E, Spiro A, Wong A, Spencer J, Huynh T, et al. Cannabidiol potentiates Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) behavioural effects and alters THC pharmacokinetics during acute and chronic treatment in adolescent rats. Psychopharmacology. 2011 [PubMed]
196. Bornheim LM, Correia MA. Selective inactivation of mouse liver cytochrome P-450IIIA by cannabidiol. Molecular pharmacology. 1990;38(3):319–26. [PubMed]
197. Bornheim LM, Kim KY, Li J, Perotti BY, Benet LZ. Effect of cannabidiol pretreatment on the kinetics of tetrahydrocannabinol metabolites in mouse brain. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 1995;23(8):825–31. [PubMed]
198. Zuardi AW, Karniol IG. Effects on variable-interval performance in rats of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol, separately and in combination. Braz J Med Biol Res. 1983;16(2):141–6. [PubMed]
199. Musty RE, Conti LH, Mechoulam R. Anxiolytic properties of cannabidiol. In: Harvey DJ, editor. Marihuana ‘84. Proceedings of the Oxford Symposium on Cannabis. IRL Press Limited; Oxford, UK: 1984. pp. 713–719.
200. Guimaraes FS, Chiaretti TM, Graeff FG, Zuardi AW. Antianxiety effect of cannabidiol in the elevated plus-maze. Psychopharmacology. 1990;100(4):558–9. [PubMed]
201. Casarotto PC, Gomes FV, Resstel LB, Guimaraes FS. Cannabidiol inhibitory effect on marble-burying behaviour: involvement of CB1 receptors. Behavioural pharmacology. 2010;21(4):353–8. [PubMed]
202. Bergamaschi MM, Queiroz RH, Chagas MH, de Oliveira DC, De Martinis BS, Kapczinski F, et al. Cannabidiol reduces the anxiety induced by simulated public speaking in treatment-naive social phobia patients. Neuropsychopharmacology: official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology. 2011;36(6):1219–26. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
203. Crippa JA, Derenusson GN, Ferrari TB, Wichert-Ana L, Duran FL, Martin-Santos R, et al. Neural basis of anxiolytic effects of cannabidiol (CBD) in generalized social anxiety disorder: a preliminary report. J Psychopharmacol. 2011;25(1):121–30. [PubMed]
204. Moreira FA, Aguiar DC, Guimaraes FS. Anxiolytic-like effect of cannabidiol in the rat Vogel conflict test. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2006;30(8):1466–71. [PubMed]
205. Silveira Filho NG, Tufik S. Comparative effects between cannabidiol and diazepam on neophobia, food intake and conflict behavior. Research Communications in Psychology, Psychiatry and Behavior. 1981;6:25–6.
206. Gomes FV, Casarotto PC, Resstel LB, Guimaraes FS. Facilitation of CB1 receptor-mediated neurotransmission decreases marble burying behavior in mice. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2011;35(2):434–8. [PubMed]
207. Fusar-Poli P, Crippa JA, Bhattacharyya S, Borgwardt SJ, Allen P, Martin-Santos R, et al. Distinct effects of {delta}9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol on neural activation during emotional processing. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2009;66(1):95–105. [PubMed]
208. Campos AC, Guimaraes FS. Involvement of 5HT1A receptors in the anxiolytic-like effects of cannabidiol injected into the dorsolateral periaqueductal gray of rats. Psychopharmacology. 2008;199(2):223–30. [PubMed]
209. de Paula Soares V, Campos AC, Bortoli VC, Zangrossi H, Jr., Guimaraes FS, Zuardi AW. Intra-dorsal periaqueductal gray administration of cannabidiol blocks panic-like response by activating 5-HT1A receptors. Behavioural brain research. 2010;213(2):225–9. [PubMed]
210. Bortolato M, Mangieri RA, Fu J, Kim JH, Arguello O, Duranti A, et al. Antidepressant-like activity of the fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitor URB597 in a rat model of chronic mild stress. Biological psychiatry. 2007;62(10):1103–10. [PubMed]
211. Glaser ST, Abumrad NA, Fatade F, Kaczocha M, Studholme KM, Deutsch DG. Evidence against the presence of an anandamide transporter. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2003;100(7):4269–74. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
212. Moore SA, Nomikos GG, Dickason-Chesterfield AK, Schober DA, Schaus JM, Ying BP, et al. Identification of a high-affinity binding site involved in the transport of endocannabinoids. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2005;102(49):17852–7.[PMC free article] [PubMed]
213. Davis MR, Ressler KJ, Chhatwal JP, McDevitt JP. Augmentation of psychotherapy with cannabinoid reuptake inhibitors. 2006. US0084659.
214. Panlilio LV, Justinova Z, Goldberg SR. Animal models of cannabinoid reward. Br J Pharmacol. 2010;160(3):499–510. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
215. Kathuria S, Gaetani S, Fegley D, Valino F, Duranti A, Tontini A, et al. Modulation of anxiety through blockade of anandamide hydrolysis. Nat Med. 2003;9(1):76–81. [PubMed]
216. Patel S, Roelke CT, Rademacher DJ, Cullinan WE, Hillard CJ. Endocannabinoid signaling negatively modulates stress-induced activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Endocrinology. 2004;145(12):5431–8. [PubMed]
217. Gaetani S, Dipasquale P, Romano A, Righetti L, Cassano T, Piomelli D, et al. The endocannabinoid system as a target for novel anxiolytic and antidepressant drugs. Int Rev Neurobiol. 2009;85:57–72.[PubMed]
218. Naidu PS, Booker L, Cravatt BF, Lichtman AH. Synergy between enzyme inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase and cyclooxygenase in visceral nociception. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2009;329(1):48–56.[PMC free article] [PubMed]
219. Lisboa SF, Resstel LB, Aguiar DC, Guimaraes FS. Activation of cannabinoid CB1 receptors in the dorsolateral periaqueductal gray induces anxiolytic effects in rats submitted to the Vogel conflict test. Eur J Pharmacol. 2008;593(1-3):73–8. [PubMed]
220. Rubino T, Realini N, Castiglioni C, Guidali C, Vigano D, Marras E, et al. Role in anxiety behavior of the endocannabinoid system in the prefrontal cortex. Cereb Cortex. 2008;18(6):1292–301. [PubMed]
221. Haller J, Barna I, Barsvari B, Gyimesi Pelczer K, Yasar S, Panlilio LV, et al. Interactions between environmental aversiveness and the anxiolytic effects of enhanced cannabinoid signaling by FAAH inhibition in rats. Psychopharmacology. 2009;204(4):607–16. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
222. Justinova Z, Mangieri RA, Bortolato M, Chefer SI, Mukhin AG, Clapper JR, et al. Fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibition heightens anandamide signaling without producing reinforcing effects in primates. Biological psychiatry. 2008;64(11):930–7. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
223. Vandevoorde S. Overview of the chemical families of fatty acid amide hydrolase and monoacylglycerol lipase inhibitors. Curr Top Med Chem. 2008;8(3):247–67. [PubMed]
224. Clapper JR, Vacondio F, King AR, Duranti A, Tontini A, Silva C, et al. A second generation of carbamate-based fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitors with improved activity in vivo. ChemMedChem. 2009;4(9):1505–13. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
225. Sing-Yuen SK, Ka X, Hongfeng D. (Oxime)carbamoyl fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitors. 2005. US6949574.
226. Ahn K, Johnson DS, Fitzgerald LR, Liimatta M, Arendse A, Stevenson T, et al. Novel mechanistic class of fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitors with remarkable selectivity. Biochemistry. 2007;46(45):13019–30. [PubMed]
227. Seillier A, Advani T, Cassano T, Hensler JG, Giuffrida A. Inhibition of fatty-acid amide hydrolase and CB1 receptor antagonism differentially affect behavioural responses in normal and PCP-treated rats. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2010;13(3):373–86. [PubMed]
228. Sokolic L, Long LE, Hunt GE, Arnold JC, McGregor IS. Disruptive effects of the prototypical cannabinoid Delta-tetrahydrocannabinol and the fatty acid amide inhibitor URB-597 on go/no-go auditory discrimination performance and olfactory reversal learning in rats. Behavioural pharmacology. 2011;22(3):191–202. [PubMed]
229. Sciolino NR, Zhou W, Hohmann AG. Enhancement of endocannabinoid signaling with JZL184, an inhibitor of the 2-arachidonoylglycerol hydrolyzing enzyme monoacylglycerol lipase, produces anxiolytic effects under conditions of high environmental aversiveness in rats. Pharmacol Res. 2011;64(3):226–34.[PMC free article] [PubMed]
230. Kinsey SG, O’Neal ST, Long JZ, Cravatt BF, Lichtman AH. Inhibition of endocannabinoid catabolic enzymes elicits anxiolytic-like effects in the marble burying assay. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2011;98(1):21–7. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
231. Sutt S, Raud S, Areda T, Reimets A, Koks S, Vasar E. Cat odour-induced anxiety–a study of the involvement of the endocannabinoid system. Psychopharmacology. 2008;198(4):509–20. [PubMed]
232. Suarez J, Rivera P, Llorente R, Romero-Zerbo SY, Bermudez-Silva FJ, de Fonseca FR, et al. Early maternal deprivation induces changes on the expression of 2-AG biosynthesis and degradation enzymes in neonatal rat hippocampus. Brain research. 2010;1349:162–73. [PubMed]
233. Olmstead MC, Paquette JJ. Methods and therapies for potentiating therapeutic activities of a cannabinoid receptor agonist via administration of a cannabinoid receptor antagonist. 2007. US0060638.
234. Aragona M, Onesti E, Tomassini V, Conte A, Gupta S, Gilio F, et al. Psychopathological and cognitive effects of therapeutic cannabinoids in multiple sclerosis: a double-blind, placebo controlled, crossover study. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2009;32(1):41–7. [PubMed]
235. Karschner EL, Darwin WD, McMahon RP, Liu F, Wright S, Goodwin RS, et al. Subjective and physiological effects after controlled Sativex and oral THC administration. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2011;89(3):400–7. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
236. Long JZ, Nomura DK, Vann RE, Walentiny DM, Booker L, Jin X, et al. Dual blockade of FAAH and MAGL identifies behavioral processes regulated by endocannabinoid crosstalk in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106(48):20270–5. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
237. Justinova Z, Yasar S, Redhi GH, Goldberg SR. The endogenous cannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol is intravenously self-administered by squirrel monkeys. J Neurosci. 2011;31(19):7043–8.[PMC free article] [PubMed]
238. Weil AT, Zinberg NE, Nelsen JM. Clinical and psychological effects of marihuana in man. Science. 1968;162(3859):1234–42. [PubMed]
239. Jones RT. Marihuana-induced “high”: influence of expectation, setting and previous drug experience. Pharmacol Rev. 1971;23(4):359–69. [PubMed]
240. Tennant FS, Jr., Groesbeck CJ. Psychiatric effects of hashish. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1972;27(1):133–6.[PubMed]
241. Millman RB, Sbriglio R. Patterns of use and psychopathology in chronic marijuana users. Psychiatr Clin North Am. 1986;9(3):533–45. [PubMed]
242. Dorard G, Berthoz S, Haviland MG, Phan O, Corcos M, Bungener C. Multimethod alexithymia assessment in adolescents and young adults with a cannabis use disorder. Compr Psychiatry. 2008;49(6):585–92. [PubMed]
243. Jones RT, Benowitz NL, Herning RI. Clinical relevance of cannabis tolerance and dependence. J Clin Pharmacol. 1981;21(8-9 Suppl):143S–52S. [PubMed]
244. Ashton CH. Adverse effects of cannabis and cannabinoids. Br J Anaesth. 1999;83(4):637–49.[PubMed]
245. Oviedo A, Glowa J, Herkenham M. Chronic cannabinoid administration alters cannabinoid receptor binding in rat brain: a quantitative autoradiographic study. Brain research. 1993;616(1-2):293–302.[PubMed]
246. Rodriguez de Fonseca F, Gorriti MA, Fernandez-Ruiz JJ, Palomo T, Ramos JA. Downregulation of rat brain cannabinoid binding sites after chronic delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol treatment. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1994;47(1):33–40. [PubMed]
247. Henquet C, Di Forti M, Morrison P, Kuepper R, Murray RM. Gene-environment interplay between cannabis and psychosis. Schizophrenia bulletin. 2008;34(6):1111–21. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
248. Murray RM, Morrison PD, Henquet C, Di Forti M. Cannabis, the mind and society: the hash realities. Nature reviews Neuroscience. 2007;8(11):885–95. [PubMed]
249. Arseneault L, Cannon M, Witton J, Murray RM. Causal association between cannabis and psychosis: examination of the evidence. The British journal of psychiatry: the journal of mental science. 2004;184:110–7. [PubMed]
250. Houston JE, Murphy J, Adamson G, Stringer M, Shevlin M. Childhood sexual abuse, early cannabis use, and psychosis: testing an interaction model based on the National Comorbidity Survey. Schizophrenia bulletin. 2008;34(3):580–5. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
251. Caspi A, Moffitt TE, Cannon M, McClay J, Murray R, Harrington H, et al. Moderation of the effect of adolescent-onset cannabis use on adult psychosis by a functional polymorphism in the catechol-O-methyltransferase gene: longitudinal evidence of a gene X environment interaction. Biological psychiatry. 2005;57(10):1117–27. [PubMed]
252. Henquet C, Rosa A, Delespaul P, Papiol S, Fananas L, van Os J, et al. COMT ValMet moderation of cannabis-induced psychosis: a momentary assessment study of ‘switching on’ hallucinations in the flow of daily life. Acta psychiatrica Scandinavica. 2009;119(2):156–60. [PubMed]
253. Henquet C, Rosa A, Krabbendam L, Papiol S, Fananas L, Drukker M, et al. An experimental study of catechol-o-methyltransferase Val158Met moderation of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-induced effects on psychosis and cognition. Neuropsychopharmacology: official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology. 2006;31(12):2748–57. [PubMed]
254. Boucher AA, Arnold JC, Duffy L, Schofield PR, Micheau J, Karl T. Heterozygous neuregulin 1 mice are more sensitive to the behavioural effects of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol. Psychopharmacology. 2007;192(3):325–36. [PubMed]
255. Boucher AA, Hunt GE, Micheau J, Huang X, McGregor IS, Karl T, et al. The schizophrenia susceptibility gene neuregulin 1 modulates tolerance to the effects of cannabinoids. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2011;14(5):631–43. [PubMed]
256. Khare M, Taylor AH, Konje JC, Bell SC. Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol inhibits cytotrophoblast cell proliferation and modulates gene transcription. Molecular human reproduction. 2006;12(5):321–33.[PubMed]
EQUAL MEDICINE ORGANIZATION - Marijuana ALS Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Treatment cures medical marijuana thc cannabis cbd