As many as one in five Americans lives with chronic pain. Many of these people suffer from neuropathic pain (nerve-related pain) — a condition that is associated with numerous diseases, including diabetes, cancer, multiple sclerosis, and HIV. In most cases, the use of standard analgesic medications such as opiates and NSAIDS (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) is ineffective at relieving neuropathic pain. Further, long-term use of most conventional pain relievers, including acetaminophen, opioids, and NSAIDs, is associated with a host of potential adverse side effects, including dependence, heart-attack, liver damage, and accidental overdose death.
 New York Times. October 21, 1994. “Study says 1 in 5 Americans suffers from chronic pain.”
 Cone et al. 2008. Urine drug testing of chronic pain patients: licit and illicit drug patterns. Journal of Analytical Toxicology 32: 532-543.
 Ryan-Ibarra et al. 2014. Prevalence of medical marijuana use in California, 2012. Drug and Alcohol Review 34: 141-146.
 Reiman et al., 2017. Cannabis as a substitute for opioid-based pain medication: Patient self-report. Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research 2: [open access journal].
 Abrams et al. 2007. Cannabis in painful HIV-associated sensory neuropathy: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Neurology 68: 515-521.
 Ellis et al. 2008. Smoked medicinal cannabis for neuropathic pain in HIV: a randomized, crossover clinical trial. Neuropsychopharmacology 34: 672-80.
 Wallace et al. 2007. Dose-dependent effects of smoked cannabis on Capsaicin-induced pain and hyperalgesia in healthy volunteers. Anesthesiology 107: 785-796.
 Wilsey et al. 2008. A randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover trial of cannabis cigarettes in neuropathic pain. Journal of Pain 9: 506-521.
 Ware et al. 2010. Smoked cannabis for chronic neuropathic pain: a randomized controlled trial. CMAJ 182: 694-701.
 Cooper et al. 2013. Comparison of the analgesic effects of dronabinol and smoked marijuana in daily marijuana smokers. Neuropsychopharmacology 38: 1984-1992.
 Wilsey et al. 2013. Low-dose vaporized cannabis significantly improves neuropathic pain. The Journal of Pain 14: 136-148.
 Eisenberg et al. 2014. Pharmacokinetics, Efficacy, Safety, and Ease of Use of a Novel Portable Metered-Dose Cannabis Inhaler in Patients With Chronic Neuropathic Pain: A Phase 1a Study. Journal of Pain and Palliative Care Pharmacotherapy 28: 216-225.
 Wallace et al., 2015. Efficacy of inhaled cannabis on painful diabetic neuropathy. Journal of Pain 7: 616-627.
 Wilsey et al. 2016. An exploratory human laboratory experiment evaluating vaporized cannabis in the treatment of neuropathic pain from spinal cord injury and disease. The Journal of Pain 17: 982-1000.
 Lynch and Campbell. 2011. Cannabinoids for treatment of chronic non-cancer pain; a systematic review of randomized trials. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 72: 735-744.
 Sunil Aggerwal. 2012. Cannabinergic pain medicine: a concise clinical primer and survey of randomized-controlled trial results. The Clinical Journal of Pain 29: 162-171.
 Lynch and Ware. 2015. Cannabinoids for the treatment of chronic non-cancer pain: An updated systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology 10: 293-301.
 Ware et al. 2015. Cannabis for the Management of Pain: Assessment of Safety Study. Journal of Pain. 16: 1233-1242.
 Comelli et al. 2008. Antihyperalgesic effect of a Cannabis sativa extract in a rat model of neuropathic pain. Phytotherapy Research 22: 1017-1024.
 Johnson et al. 2009. Multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of the efficacy, safety and tolerability of THC: CBD extract in patients with intractable cancer-related pain. Journal of Symptom Management 39: 167-179.
 Haroutounian et al. 2016. The effect of medicinal cannabis on pain and quality of life outcomes in chronic pain: A prospective open-label study. The Clinical Journal of Pain 32: 1036-1043.
 Boehnke et al. 2016. Medical cannabis use is associated with decreased opiate medication use in a retrospective cross-sectional survey of patients with chronic pain. The Journal of Pain 17: 739-744.
 Reiman et al., 2017. op. cit.
 Powell et al. 2015. Do medical marijuana laws reduce addictions and deaths related to pain killers? NBER Working Paper No. 21345.
 Bachhuber et al. 2014. Medical cannabis laws and opioid analgesic overdose mortality in the United States, 1999-2010. Journal of the American Medical Association, Internal Medicine 174: 1688-1673.
 Shi. 2017. Medical marijuana policies and hospitalizations related to marijuana and opioid pain reliever. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 173: 144-150.
 Kim et al. 2016. Medical marijuana laws and the prevalence of opioids detected among fatally injured drivers. American Journal of Public Health 106: 2032-2037.
 Bradford and Bradford. 2016. Medical marijuana laws reduce prescription medication use in Medicare Part D. Health Affairs 35: 1230-1236.