Analgesic / Pain Relief Marijuana Treatment References

Cannabis Pain

As many as one in five Americans lives with chronic pain.[1] Many of these people suffer from neuropathic pain (nerve-related pain) — a condition that is associated with numerous diseases, including diabetes, cancer, multiple sclerosis, and HIV. In most cases, the use of standard analgesic medications such as opiates and NSAIDS (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) is ineffective at relieving neuropathic pain. Further, long-term use of most conventional pain relievers, including acetaminophen, opioids, and NSAIDs, is associated with a host of potential adverse side effects, including dependence, heart-attack, liver damage, and accidental overdose death.

Analgesic / Pain Relief Marijuana Treatment References

[1] New York Times. October 21, 1994. “Study says 1 in 5 Americans suffers from chronic pain.”

[2] Cone et al. 2008. Urine drug testing of chronic pain patients: licit and illicit drug patterns. Journal of Analytical Toxicology 32: 532-543.

[3] Ryan-Ibarra et al. 2014. Prevalence of medical marijuana use in California, 2012. Drug and Alcohol Review 34: 141-146.

[4] Reiman et al., 2017. Cannabis as a substitute for opioid-based pain medication: Patient self-report. Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research 2: [open access journal].

[5] Grotenhermen and Muller-Vahl. 2017. Medicinal uses of marijuana and cannabinoids. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences 35: 378-405.

[6] Abrams et al. 2007. Cannabis in painful HIV-associated sensory neuropathy: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Neurology 68: 515-521.

[7] Ellis et al. 2008. Smoked medicinal cannabis for neuropathic pain in HIV: a randomized, crossover clinical trial. Neuropsychopharmacology 34: 672-80.

[8] Wallace et al. 2007. Dose-dependent effects of smoked cannabis on Capsaicin-induced pain and hyperalgesia in healthy volunteers. Anesthesiology 107: 785-796.

[9] Wilsey et al. 2008. A randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover trial of cannabis cigarettes in neuropathic pain. Journal of Pain 9: 506-521.

[10] Ware et al. 2010. Smoked cannabis for chronic neuropathic pain: a randomized controlled trial. CMAJ 182: 694-701.

[11] Cooper et al. 2013. Comparison of the analgesic effects of dronabinol and smoked marijuana in daily marijuana smokers. Neuropsychopharmacology 38: 1984-1992.

[12] Wilsey et al. 2013. Low-dose vaporized cannabis significantly improves neuropathic pain. The Journal of Pain 14: 136-148.

[13] Eisenberg et al. 2014. Pharmacokinetics, Efficacy, Safety, and Ease of Use of a Novel Portable Metered-Dose Cannabis Inhaler in Patients With Chronic Neuropathic Pain: A Phase 1a Study. Journal of Pain and Palliative Care Pharmacotherapy 28: 216-225.

[14] Wallace et al., 2015. Efficacy of inhaled cannabis on painful diabetic neuropathy. Journal of Pain 7: 616-627.

[15] Wilsey et al. 2016. An exploratory human laboratory experiment evaluating vaporized cannabis in the treatment of neuropathic pain from spinal cord injury and disease. The Journal of Pain 17: 982-1000.

[16] Lynch and Campbell. 2011. Cannabinoids for treatment of chronic non-cancer pain; a systematic review of randomized trials. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 72: 735-744.

[17] Sunil Aggerwal. 2012. Cannabinergic pain medicine: a concise clinical primer and survey of randomized-controlled trial results. The Clinical Journal of Pain 29: 162-171.

[18] Lynch and Ware. 2015. Cannabinoids for the treatment of chronic non-cancer pain: An updated systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology 10: 293-301.

[19] National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. The Health Effects of Cannabis and Cannabinoids: Chapter Highlights.

[20] Ware et al. 2015. Cannabis for the Management of Pain: Assessment of Safety Study. Journal of Pain. 16: 1233-1242.

[21] Comelli et al. 2008. Antihyperalgesic effect of a Cannabis sativa extract in a rat model of neuropathic pain. Phytotherapy Research 22: 1017-1024.

[22] Johnson et al. 2009. Multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of the efficacy, safety and tolerability of THC: CBD extract in patients with intractable cancer-related pain. Journal of Symptom Management 39: 167-179.

[23] Abrams et al. 2011. Cannabiniod-opioid interaction in chronic pain. Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics 90: 844-851.

[24] Haroutounian et al. 2016. The effect of medicinal cannabis on pain and quality of life outcomes in chronic pain: A prospective open-label study. The Clinical Journal of Pain 32: 1036-1043.

[25] Boehnke et al. 2016. Medical cannabis use is associated with decreased opiate medication use in a retrospective cross-sectional survey of patients with chronic pain. The Journal of Pain 17: 739-744.

[26] Reiman et al., 2017. op. cit.

[27] Powell et al. 2015. Do medical marijuana laws reduce addictions and deaths related to pain killers? NBER Working Paper No. 21345.

[28] Bachhuber et al. 2014. Medical cannabis laws and opioid analgesic overdose mortality in the United States, 1999-2010. Journal of the American Medical Association, Internal Medicine 174: 1688-1673.

[29] Shi. 2017. Medical marijuana policies and hospitalizations related to marijuana and opioid pain reliever. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 173: 144-150.

[30] Kim et al. 2016. Medical marijuana laws and the prevalence of opioids detected among fatally injured drivers. American Journal of Public Health 106: 2032-2037.

[31] Bradford and Bradford. 2016. Medical marijuana laws reduce prescription medication use in Medicare Part D. Health Affairs 35: 1230-1236.

[32] Mark Collen. 2012. Prescribing cannabis for harm reduction. Harm Reduction Journal 9: 1.

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