Is there a legitimate role for the therapeutic use of cannabinoids for symptom management in chronic kidney disease?
- Division of Nephrology and Immunology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. email@example.com
Chronic pain is a common and debilitating symptom experienced in the context of numerous other physical and emotional symptoms by many patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Management of pain with opioids in CKD can be problematic given the prominence of adverse effects of opioids in CKD, which may exacerbate symptoms, such as nausea, anorexia, pruritus, and insomnia, all of which impact negatively on patients’ health-related quality of life. Novel therapeutic approaches for pain and symptom management in CKD are required. Recent research in the area of cannabinoids (CBs) is legitimizing the use of cannabis-based medicine. In this review, we describe the symptom burden borne by patients with CKD and review some of the key basic science and clinical literature to evaluate the potential use of CBs for the management of overall symptom burden in CKD.
Cannabidiol attenuates cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity by decreasing oxidative/nitrosative stress, inflammation, and cell death.
- Department of Urology, The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China.
The platinum compound cisplatin is one of the most potent chemotherapy agents available to treat various malignancies. Nephrotoxicity is a common complication of cisplatin chemotherapy, which involves increased oxidative and nitrosative stress, limiting its clinical use. In this study, we have investigated the effects of a nonpsychoactive cannabinoid cannabidiol, which was reported to exert antioxidant effects and has recently been approved for the treatment of inflammation, pain, and spasticity associated with multiple sclerosis in patients in a mouse model of cisplatin-induced nephropathy. Cisplatin induced increased expression of superoxide-generating enzymes RENOX (NOX4) and NOX1, enhanced reactive oxygen species generation, inducible nitric-oxide synthase expression, nitrotyrosine formation, apoptosis (caspase-3/7 activity, DNA fragmentation, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling staining), poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activity, and inflammation (tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1beta) in the kidneys of mice, associated with marked histopathological damage and impaired renal function (elevated serum blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels) 72 h after the administration of the drug. Treatment of mice with cannabidiol markedly attenuated the cisplatin-induced oxidative/nitrosative stress, inflammation, and cell death in the kidney, and it improved renal function. Thus, our results suggest that cannabidiol may represent a promising new protective strategy against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity.